Thursday, October 23, 2008

Here is the Big Five personality scale with facets that matches the ones mentioned in studies I posted.

NEO-PI-R Ÿ NEO Personality Inventory - Revised

P.T. (Jr.) Costa, R.R. McCrae
Hogrefe Ltd. The Test People, Oxford


The Test

The NEO PI-R is a measure of the five major domains of personality as well as the six facets that define each domain. Taken together, the five domain scales and thirty facet scales of the NEO PI-R facilitate a comprehensive and detailed assessment of normal adult personality. The NEO PI-R is recognized internationally as a gold standard for personality assessment. Today, reputable developers of personality tests for the occupational market will as a matter of course publish data on the relationship of their tests with the five factor model using one form or another of the NEO as the benchmark. The total amount of recent data from high level academic journals concerning the NEO PI-R underpins its quality.

Description of the scale and characteristics

Neuroticism: identifies individuals who are prone to psychological distress

Anxiety: level of free floating anxiety

Angry Hostility: tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration and bitterness

Depression: tendency to experience feelings of guilt, sadness, despondency and loneliness

Self Consciousness: shyness or social anxiety

Impulsiveness: tendency to act on cravings and urges rather than reining them in and delaying gratificayion

Vulnerability: general susceptibility to stress

Extraversion: quantity and intensity of energy directed outwards into the social world

Warmth: interest in and friendliness towards others

Gregariousness: preference for the company of others

Assertiveness: social ascendancy and forcefulness of expression

Activity: pace of living

Excitement seeking: need for environmental stimulation

Positive Emotion: tendency to experience positive emotions

Openness to Experience: the active seeking and appreciation of experiences for their own sake

Fantasy: receptivity to the inner world of imagination

Aesthetics: appreciation of art and beauty

Feelings: openness to inner feelings and emotions

Actions: openness to new experiences on a practical level

Ideas: intellectual curiosity

Values: readiness to re-examine own values and those of authority figures

Agreeableness: the kinds of interactions an individual prefers from compassion to tough mindedness

Trust: belief in the sincerity and good intentions of others

Straightforwardness: frankness in expression

Altruism: active concern for the welfare of others

Compliance: response to interpersonal conflict

Modesty: tendency to play down own achievements and be humble.

Tender mindedness: attitude of sympathy for others.

Conscientiousness: degree of organization, persistence, control and motivation in goal directed behaviour

Competence: belief in own self efficacy

Order: personal organization

Dutifulness: emphasis placed on importance of fulfilling moral obligations

Achievement striving: need for personal achievement and sense of direction

Self Discipline: capacity to begin tasks and follow through to completion despite boredom or distractions.

Deliberation: tendency to think things through before acting or speaking.

Neuroticism Unexpectedly Shown as Protective Factor in Mortality$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed

1: Psychosom Med. 2005 Sep-Oct;67(5):724-33.

Psychosom Med. 2005 Nov-Dec;67(6):839-40.

Domain and facet personality predictors of all-cause mortality among Medicare patients aged 65 to 100. Weiss A, Costa PT Jr.
Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224-6825, USA.

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to test whether Conscientiousness, the other 4 domains of the Five-Factor Model, and their facets predicted mortality in older, frail individuals. METHODS: Controlling for demographic and health measures, we used Cox regression to test whether the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness domains predicted all-cause mortality over 5 years in 1076 65- to 100-year-old participants who took part in a Medicare Demonstration study. Supplementary analyses on 597 participants aged 66 to 102 who were reassessed 2 years later were conducted to determine whether any of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) facets were related to mortality. RESULTS: When personality domains were treated as continuous variables, NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Agreeableness were significant protective factors. When personality domains were trichotomized, NEO-FFI Conscientiousness was a protective factor. In a third analysis, Agreeableness was not a significant predictor in a model that included the continuous Neuroticism and trichotomized Conscientiousness variables. Analysis of the NEO-PI-R Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness factors showed that Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were protective and that there was a trend for a similar effect of Neuroticism. Facet-level analyses revealed that the Impulsiveness, Straightforwardness, and Self-Discipline facets of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, respectively, were prospectively related to greater survival over a 3-year interval. CONCLUSION: The effects of Neuroticism and Agreeableness on mortality are inconsistent across previous studies. This study indicates that, in a sample of older, frail participants, high Neuroticism and Agreeableness scores are protective and that more specific effects are primarily the result of the Impulsiveness and Straightforwardness facet scales. The Conscientiousness findings are consistent with those in earlier studies and demonstrate the importance of the Self-Discipline facet.

PMID: 16204430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Conscientious Personality Reduces Risk of Alzheimer Disease and Cognitive Impairment$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed

1: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;64(10):1204-12.

Conscientiousness and the incidence of Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Wilson RS, Schneider JA, Arnold SE, Bienias JL, Bennett DA.
Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, 600 S Paulina, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

CONTEXT: The personality trait of conscientiousness has been related to morbidity and mortality in old age, but its association with the development of Alzheimer disease is not known. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a higher level of conscientiousness is associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer disease. DESIGN: Longitudinal clinicopathologic cohort study with up to 12 years of annual follow-up. SETTING: The Religious Orders Study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 997 older Catholic nuns, priests, and brothers without dementia at enrollment, recruited from more than 40 groups across the United States. At baseline, they completed a standard 12-item measure of conscientiousness. Those who died underwent a uniform neuropathologic evaluation from which previously established measures of amyloid burden, tangle density, Lewy bodies, and chronic cerebral infarction were derived. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and change in previously established measures of global cognition and specific cognitive functions. RESULTS: Conscientiousness scores ranged from 11 to 47 (mean, 34.0; SD, 5.0). During follow-up, 176 people developed Alzheimer disease. In a proportional hazards regression model adjusted for age, sex, and education, a high conscientiousness score (90th percentile) was associated with an 89% reduction in risk of Alzheimer disease compared with a low score (10th percentile). Results were not substantially changed by controlling for other personality traits, activity patterns, vascular conditions, or other risk factors. Conscientiousness was also associated with decreased incidence of mild cognitive impairment and reduced cognitive decline. In those who died and underwent brain autopsy, conscientiousness was unrelated to neuropathologic measures, but it modified the association of neurofibrillary pathologic changes and cerebral infarction with cognition proximate to death. CONCLUSION: Level of conscientiousness is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease.

PMID: 17909133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Childhood and Adult Conscientiousness Both Independent Predictors of Mortality$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed

1: Health Psychol. 2007 Jul;26(4):428-36.

Personality and mortality risk across the life span: the importance of conscientiousness as a biopsychosocial attribute.

Martin LR, Friedman HS, Schwartz JE.
Department of Psychology, La Sierra University, Riverside, CA 92515-8247, USA.

OBJECTIVE: This study addressed whether personality in childhood and personality in adulthood are independent predictors of mortality risk and the extent to which behavioral and other psychosocial factors can explain observed relationships between personality and mortality risk. DESIGN: This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 1,253 male and female Californians over 7 decades (1930-2000). Proportional hazards regressions were the principal analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality risk (in the form of relative hazards) was the primary outcome. Additional tests of mediators and moderators ascertained whether associations between personality and mortality risk remained significant when psychosocial and behavioral variables were statistically controlled. RESULTS: The findings, including a new 14-year additional follow-up in old age, revealed that conscientiousness, measured independently in childhood and adulthood, predicted mortality risk across the full life span. The link from childhood remained robust when adult conscientiousness and certain behavioral variables were controlled. Psychosocial and behavioral variables partly explained the adult conscientiousness-longevity association. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate the utility and complexity of modern personality concepts in understanding health and point to conscientiousness as a key underexplored area for future biopsychosocial studies. Copyright 2007 APA.

PMID: 17605562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

* * *

I was not a conscientious kid. And things look even bleaker when I think about what my room looks like today as an adult. May as well live it up, then!

[Exits stage left with bottle of vodka.]

Facets of Conscientousness and Longevity: High Achievement and Orderliness Strong Predictors of Reduced Mortality

1: Health Psychol. 2008 Sep;27(5):505-12

Do conscientious individuals live longer? A quantitative review.
Kern ML, Friedman HS.
Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA 82521-0426, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Following up on growing evidence that higher levels of conscientiousness are associated with greater health protection, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of the association between conscientiousness-related traits and longevity. DESIGN: Using a random-effects analysis model, the authors statistically combined 20 independent samples. In addition, the authors used fixed-effects analyses to examine specific facets of conscientiousness and study characteristics as potential moderators of this relationship. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effect sizes were computed for each individual sample as the correlation coefficient r, based on the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality risk (all-cause mortality risk, longevity, or length of survival). RESULTS: Higher levels of conscientiousness were significantly and positively related to longevity (r = .11, 95% confidence interval = .05-.17). Associations were strongest for the achievement (persistent, industrious) and order (organized, disciplined) facets of conscientiousness. CONCLUSION: Results strongly support the importance of conscientiousness-related traits to health across the life span. Future research and interventions should consider how individual differences in conscientiousness may cause and be shaped by health-relevant biopsychosocial events across many years. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

PMID: 18823176 [PubMed - in process]
This is a new story about conscientousness, but it really is old news. Just check our archives!

Secret to a longer life - being conscientious
By Richard Alleyne, Science Correspondent
Last Updated: 6:01pm BST 22/10/2008

Being conscientious not only leads to a more successful life but also a longer one, a new study claims.

Scientists have discovered that high achievers such as company executives, Olympic athletes and even world leaders live on average up to four years longer than the general public.

Researchers believe that being both industrious and scrupulous at the same time appear to be the key to the extra longevity even though the individual's jobs may be more stressful than the average person.

The life-prolonging benefits of a "conscientious life" have come to light from a comparison of 20 previous studies which together matched the behaviour of 8,900 people with the age they died.

Dr Howard Friedman, at the Univeristy of California, analysed the results using a pyschologicial scale of conscientiousness which broke it down into multiple traits, including organisation, thoroughness, reliability, competence, order, dutifulness, ambition, self-discipline, and deliberation.

The results, published in the New Scientist, found that highly conscientious people lived on average two to four years longer than the norm.

This extra margin exceeds the effects of socioeconomic status and intelligence, which are also known to increase longevity.

Dr Friedman, who worked with Dr. Margaret Kern, said conscientious people do not live longer simply because they are boring or cautious, but admits they tend to "live lives that are more stable and less stressful".

"Yes it is true that conscientious folks are less like to smoke or drink to excess or take too many risks," he said.

"But it is also true that conscientious folks lead life patterns that are more stable and less stressful."

The study also found that orderly, responsible and reliable also lived longer.

"One of the studies we included looked at American presidents," said Dr Kern.

The first US president, George Washington, lived to be 67, double the life expectancy there at the time.

"Washington was very conscientious, yet he certainly didn't live a boring life."

* * *

Well in Washington's era, infant mortality was ridiculously high, so that's not "double" the surviving adult life expectancy. As for CEOs and Olympians, aren't they more likely to be physically fit than average? Plus they didn't factor in self-perceived social status among CEOs and Olympians, which is important in longevity. Studies already show that winners of the Nobel prize, especially for Physics, live 2 years longer than those who don't because of the lifelong status boost. Were the nominees any less industrious? I don't think so.

Don't mind me. I'm just being defensive because, well, let's just say whenever I'm posting here, I'm supposed to be doing something else....

Monday, October 20, 2008

Chew Your Food 30 Times For Long Life, Says One Centenarian

Centenarian Dr. Saburo Shochi and Round the World Lecture tour
Submitted by vkraus on Wed, 09/13/2006 - 09:37.

Centenarian on a Round the World Tour

Dr. Saburo Shochi who celebrated his 100th birthday on August 16th is a lifelong educator and specialist in early-childhood education for disabled children. He is the founder of the Shiinomi School (1954) in Fukuoka, Japan, the first established school for physically and mentally challenged children in Japan. A Shiinomi class was also established in China, the first for challenged children.

On his third Round the World Tour, Dr. Shochi has traveled to Shanghai and Beijing, China and Los Angeles. On September 12 at the SGI-USA Community Center in Santa Monica, Calif. Dr. Shochi gave a 90 minute lecture and powerpoint presentation in English on his life and health. He shared that his first two children who were both born with cerebral palsy were his motivation to establish a school for physically and mentally challenged children. He sold his family property and opened the Shiinomi Gakuen in 1954. He led the audience in a baton exercise and performed the “Kurodabushi” dance, a traditional Japanese fan dance. His secret to a healthy long life is to chew each mouthful of food 30 times.

He has written a number of books on childhood education. One recently published is a booklet on Parent and Childhood Toymaking. One of the most emphasized programs at the Shiinomi School is making toys from recycled products such as tissue boxes, film canisters, and empty toilet paper rolls. Dr. Shochi says that handmaking toys stimulates one's brain and creativity. It is especially beneficial for children to be able to make toys with their parents.

Dr. Shochi holds doctorates in medicine and literature. He is an honorary professor of Philosophy and Education. He speaks Russian, Korean, Chinese and English.

He will be traveling to Boston to give a lecture at the Harvard School of Public Health on Monday, September 18. He will also travel to Paris, Switzerland, Italy, Egypt, Singapore and Hong Kong.

Lecture at Harvard School of Public Health, Monday, September 18, 2006

* * *

I wouldn't rule out chewing food slowly, deliberately, and properly, but what struck me is that in spite of the stress of having his beloved children suffer from illnesses, he pressed on and made accomodating them and other children like them his ikigai, or life's purpose--the thing that gets him out of bed in the morning. He must deal with stress well to begin with, but having this motivation certainly must have enhanced that coping mechanism in addition to occupying him with personally satisfying (working with handicapped children typically tops surveys for satisfying professions), meaningful activities. He also has to be in exceptional cognitive shape as a polyglot with advanced education.

Wednesday, October 15, 2008

Personality Predictors of Longevity

Key Search Terms: Predictors of Longevity

My apologies for not updating in awhile, but I will no longer have internet access anytime in the near future, so updates will be spotty.

Published online before print July 2, 2008, 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31817b9371
Psychosomatic Medicine 70:621-627 (2008)
© 2008 American Psychosomatic Society

Personality Predictors of Longevity: Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness

Antonio Terracciano, PhD, Corinna E. Löckenhoff, PhD, Alan B. Zonderman, PhD, Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD and Paul T. Costa, Jr, PhD

From the National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Antonio Terracciano, Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, National Institute on Aging, NIH, DHHS, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224. E-mail:

Objective: To examine the association between personality traits and longevity.

Methods: Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, personality traits were assessed in 2359 participants (38% women; age = 17 to 98 years, mean = 50 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, starting in 1958. Over the duration of the study, 943 (40%) participants died, on average 18 years after their personality assessment. The association of each trait with longevity was examined by Cox regression controlling for demographic variables.

Results: In preliminary analyses among the deceased, those who scored 1 standard deviation (SD) above the mean on General Activity (a facet of Extraversion), Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism), or Conscientiousness lived on average 2 to 3 years longer than those scoring 1 SD below the mean. Survival analyses on the full sample confirmed the association of General Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness with lower risk of death, such that every 1-SD increase was related to about 13%, 15%, and 27% risk reduction, respectively. The association of personality traits with longevity was largely independent from the influence of smoking and obesity. Personality predictors of longevity did not differ by sex, except for Ascendance (a facet of Extraversion). Emotional Stability was a significant predictor when the analyses were limited to deaths due to cardiovascular disease, with comparable effect sizes for General Activity and Conscientiousness.

Conclusions: In a large sample of generally healthy individuals followed for almost five decades, longevity was associated with being conscientious, emotionally stable, and active.

Key Words: neuroticism • health • mortality • longevity • smoking • obesity

Abbreviations: BLSA = Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging; SD = standard deviation; FFM = Five-Factor Model; GZTS = Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey; BMI = body mass index; HR = hazard ratio; CI = confidence interval.

Another study:

Psychosomatic Medicine 67:841-845 (2005)
© 2005 American Psychosomatic Society

Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Mortality in a Defined Population of Older Persons
Robert S. Wilson, PhD, Kristin R. Krueger, PhD, Liping Gu, MS, Julia L. Bienias, ScD, Carlos F. Mendes de Leon, PhD and Denis A. Evans, MD

From the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center (RSW, KRK) and the Rush Institute for Healthy Aging (LG, JLB, CFMdL, DAE), and the Departments of Neurological Sciences (RSW, DAE), Psychology (RSW, KRK), and Internal Medicine (JLB, CFMdL, DAE), Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Robert S. Wilson, PhD, Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, 600 S. Paulina, Suite 1038, Chicago, IL 60612. E-mail:

Objective: The objective of this study was to test the association of the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion with risk of death in old age.

Methods: A census was taken of a geographically defined urban community in Chicago, and those aged 65 years or older were invited to participate in an in-home interview; 6158 (79% of those eligible) did so. The interview included brief measures of neuroticism and extraversion, medical history, and questions about current participation in cognitive, social, and physical activities. Vital status was subsequently monitored. The association of each trait with risk of death was examined in a series of accelerated failure-time models that controlled for age, sex, race, and education.

Results: During a mean of more than 6 years of observation, 2430 persons (39.5%) died. A high level of neuroticism (score = 27; 90th percentile) was associated with a 33% increase in risk of death compared with a low level of neuroticism (score = 9; 10th percentile). A high level of extraversion (score = 33; 90th percentile) was associated with a 21% decrease in risk of death compared with a low level (score = 18; 10th percentile). Adjustment for medical conditions and health-related variables did not substantially affect results, but adjusting for baseline levels of cognitive, social, and physical activity reduced the association of both traits with mortality.

Conclusions: The results suggest that higher extraversion and lower neuroticism are associated with reduced risk of mortality in old age and that these associations are mediated in part by personality-related patterns of cognitive, social, and physical activity.

Key Words: neuroticism • extraversion • mortality • cognitive activity • social activity • physical activity

Abbreviations: SD = standard deviation; SE = standard error; RR = relative risk; CI = confidence interval.

Here are the facets making up the Big Five Factors of Personality traits:

Facets of Conscientiousness (Work Ethic):

Sense of Competence
Sense of Responsibility
Achievement Striving


Conscientiousness concerns the way in which we control, regulate and direct our impulses. Impulses are not inherently bad; occasionally time constraints require a snap decision and acting on our first impulse can be an effective response. Also, in times of play rather than work, acting spontaneously and impulsively can be fun. Impulsive individuals can be seen by others as colourful, fun-to-be-with and zany.

Nonetheless, acting on impulse can lead to trouble in a number of ways. Some impulses are antisocial. Uncontrolled antisocial acts not only harm other members of society but also can result in retribution toward the perpetrator of such impulsive acts. Another problem with impulsive acts is that they often produce immediate rewards but undesirable, long-term consequences. Examples include excessive socialising that leads to being fired from one's job, hurling an insult that causes the break-up of an important relationship, or using pleasure-inducing drugs that eventually destroy one's health.

Impulsive behaviour, even when not seriously destructive, diminishes a person's effectiveness in significant ways. Acting impulsively disallows contemplating alternative courses of action, some of which would have been wiser than the impulsive choice. Impulsivity also sidetracks people during projects that require organised sequences of steps or stages. Accomplishments of an impulsive person are therefore small, scattered and inconsistent.

A hallmark of intelligence is the ability to think about future consequences before acting on an impulse. Intelligent activity involves contemplation of long-range goals, organising and planning routes to these goals and persisting toward one's goals in the face of short-lived impulses to the contrary. The idea that intelligence involves impulse control is nicely captured by the term prudence, an alternative label for the Conscientiousness domain. Prudent means both wise and cautious. Persons who score high on the Conscientiousness scale are, in fact, perceived by others as intelligent.

The benefits of high conscientiousness are obvious. Conscientious individuals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning and persistence. They are also positively regarded by others as intelligent and reliable. On the negative side, they can be compulsive perfectionists and workaholics. Furthermore, extremely conscientious individuals might be regarded as stuffy and boring. People who are lacking in conscientiousness may be criticised for their unreliability, lack of ambition and failure to stay within the lines, but they will experience many short-lived pleasures and they will never be called stuffy.

Sense of Competence
Competency describes an individual's confidence in their ability to accomplish things.

People with high scores in this area are well-organised, tidy and neat.

Sense of Responsibility
This facet of personality reflects the strength of a person's sense of duty and obligation.

Individuals who score high in this area strive hard to achieve excellence. Their drive to be recognised as successful keeps them on track as they work hard to achieve their goals.

Self-discipline, called 'will-power' by many people, refers to the ability to persist at difficult or unpleasant tasks until they are completed.

Cautiousness describes the disposition to think carefully through possibilities before acting.

Facets of Extraversion:

Activity Level
Positive Emotions


Extraversion is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy being with people, are full of energy and often experience positive emotions.

They tend to be enthusiastic and action-oriented individuals who are likely to say "Yes!" or "Let's go!" to opportunities for excitement. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves and draw attention to themselves.

Introverts lack the exuberance, energy and activity levels of extraverts. They tend to be quiet, low-key, deliberate and disengaged from the social world.
However. their lack of social involvement should not be interpreted as shyness or depression; the introvert simply needs less stimulation than an extravert and prefers to be alone. The independence and reserve of the introvert is sometimes mistaken as unfriendliness or arrogance.

Friendly people genuinely like other people and openly demonstrate positive feelings toward others.

Gregarious people find the company of others pleasantly stimulating and rewarding. They enjoy the excitement of crowds.

High scorers for this area of personality are easily bored without high levels of stimulation.

Positive Emotions
This facet measures a person's ability to experience a range of positive feelings, including happiness, enthusiasm, optimism and joy.

High scorers for Assertiveness like to charge and direct the activities of others. They tend to be leaders in groups.

Activity Level
Active individuals lead fast-paced and busy lives. They do things and move about quickly, energetically, vigorously and they are involved in many activities.

Facets of Natural Reactions (Emotional Stability Vs. Neuroticism)

Angry Hostility
Sensitivity to Stress


People high in Natural Reactions are emotionally reactive. They respond emotionally to events that do not affect a lot of people and their reactions tend to be more intense. They are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time. These problems can diminish a person's ability to think clearly, make decisions and cope effectively with stress.

At the other end of the scale, individuals who score low in Natural Reactions are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. They tend to be calm, relaxed and rarely experience negative feelings. Freedom from negative feelings does not necessarily mean that low scorers experience a lot of positive feelings, (frequency of positive emotions is measured by a facet of the Extraversion factor).

The 'fight-or-flight' system of the brain of anxious individuals is too easily and too often engaged. Therefore, people who score high in this area often feel like something unpleasant, threatening or dangerous is about to happen.

Angry Hostility
This facet measures the tendency to feel angry. Whether or not a person expresses annoyance and hostility depends on his or her level of Agreeableness.

This facet measures normal differences in the way that people react to life's ups and downs. We are not using the word 'depression' in a medical or clinical sense.

Self-conscious individuals are sensitive about what others think of them. Their concern about rejection and ridicule cause them to feel shy and uncomfortable around others. They are easily embarrassed.

People who score in the high range for Immoderation feel strong cravings and urges that they have difficulty resisting - even though they know that they are likely to regret it later. They tend to be oriented toward short-term pleasures and rewards rather than long-term consequences.

Sensitivity to Stress
High scorers on Sensitivity to Stress have difficulty in coping with stress. They experience panic, confusion and helplessness when under pressure or when facing emergency situations.

* * *

Not sure why Self-Indulgence vs. Moderation is a facet of Natural Reactions (Emotional Lability) instead of conscientiousness.

Obviously we see our centenarians in these descriptions--low stress, keep busy with a strong work ethic, believe in moderation, accept losses and move on.